MNIST dataset with TFRecords, the standard TensorFlow data format.

    TFRecord is a data format supported throughout TensorFlow. This example demonstrates how to load TFRecord data using Input Tensors. Input Tensors differ from the normal Keras workflow because instead of fitting to data loaded into a a numpy array, data is supplied via a special tensor that reads data from nodes that are wired directly into model graph with the layer_input(tensor=input_tensor) parameter.

    There are several advantages to using Input Tensors. First, if a dataset is already in TFRecord format you can load and train on that data directly in Keras. Second, extended backend API capabilities such as TensorFlow data augmentation is easy to integrate directly into your Keras training scripts via input tensors. Third, TensorFlow implements several data APIs for TFRecords, some of which provide significantly faster training performance than numpy arrays can provide because they run via the C++ backend. Please note that this example is tailored for brevity and clarity and not to demonstrate performance or augmentation capabilities.

    Input Tensors also have important disadvantages. In particular, Input Tensors are fixed at model construction because rewiring networks is not yet supported. For this reason, changing the data input source means model weights must be saved and the model rebuilt from scratch to connect the new input data. validation cannot currently be performed as training progresses, and must be performed after training completes. This example demonstrates how to train with input tensors, save the model weights, and then evaluate the model using the standard Keras API.

    Gets to ~99.1% validation accuracy after 5 epochs (there is still a lot of margin for parameter tuning).

    if (k_backend() != 'tensorflow') {
      stop('This example can only run with the ',
           'TensorFlow backend, ',
           'because it requires TFRecords, which ',
           'are not supported on other platforms.')
    # Define Model -------------------------------------------------------------------
    cnn_layers <- function(x_train_input) {
      x_train_input %>% 
        layer_conv_2d(filters = 32, kernel_size = c(3,3), 
                      activation = 'relu', padding = 'valid') %>% 
        layer_max_pooling_2d(pool_size = c(2,2)) %>% 
        layer_conv_2d(filters = 64, kernel_size = c(3,3), activation = 'relu') %>% 
        layer_max_pooling_2d(pool_size = c(2,2)) %>% 
        layer_flatten() %>% 
        layer_dense(units = 512, activation = 'relu') %>% 
        layer_dropout(rate = 0.5) %>% 
        layer_dense(units = classes, activation = 'softmax', name = 'x_train_out')
    sess <- k_get_session()
    # Data Preparation --------------------------------------------------------------
    batch_size <- 128L
    batch_shape = list(batch_size, 28L, 28L, 1L)
    steps_per_epoch <- 469L
    epochs <- 5L
    classes <- 10L
    # The capacity variable controls the maximum queue size
    # allowed when prefetching data for training.
    capacity <- 10000L
    # min_after_dequeue is the minimum number elements in the queue
    # after a dequeue, which ensures sufficient mixing of elements.
    min_after_dequeue <- 3000L
    # If `enqueue_many` is `FALSE`, `tensors` is assumed to represent a
    # single example.  An input tensor with shape `(x, y, z)` will be output
    # as a tensor with shape `(batch_size, x, y, z)`.
    # If `enqueue_many` is `TRUE`, `tensors` is assumed to represent a
    # batch of examples, where the first dimension is indexed by example,
    # and all members of `tensors` should have the same size in the
    # first dimension.  If an input tensor has shape `(*, x, y, z)`, the
    # output will have shape `(batch_size, x, y, z)`.
    enqueue_many <- TRUE
    # mnist dataset from tf contrib
    mnist <- tf$contrib$learn$datasets$mnist
    data <- mnist$load_mnist()
    train_data <- tf$train$shuffle_batch(
      tensors = list(data$train$images, data$train$labels),
      batch_size = batch_size,
      capacity = capacity,
      min_after_dequeue = min_after_dequeue,
      enqueue_many = enqueue_many,
      num_threads = 8L
    x_train_batch <- train_data[[1]]
    y_train_batch <- train_data[[2]]
    x_train_batch <- tf$cast(x_train_batch, tf$float32)
    x_train_batch <- tf$reshape(x_train_batch, shape = batch_shape)
    y_train_batch <- tf$cast(y_train_batch, tf$int32)
    y_train_batch <- tf$one_hot(y_train_batch, classes)
    x_batch_shape <- x_train_batch$get_shape()$as_list()
    y_batch_shape = y_train_batch$get_shape()$as_list()
    x_train_input <- layer_input(tensor = x_train_batch, batch_shape = x_batch_shape)
    x_train_out <- cnn_layers(x_train_input)
    # Training & Evaluation ---------------------------------------------------------
    train_model = keras_model(inputs = x_train_input, outputs = x_train_out)
    # Pass the target tensor `y_train_batch` to `compile`
    # via the `target_tensors` keyword argument:
    train_model %>% compile(
      optimizer = optimizer_rmsprop(lr = 2e-3, decay = 1e-5),
      loss = 'categorical_crossentropy',
      metrics = c('accuracy'),
      target_tensors = y_train_batch
    # Fit the model using data from the TFRecord data tensors.
    coord <- tf$train$Coordinator()
    threads = tf$train$start_queue_runners(sess, coord)
    train_model %>% fit(
      epochs = epochs,
      steps_per_epoch = steps_per_epoch
    # Save the model weights.
    train_model %>% save_model_weights_hdf5('saved_wt.h5')
    # Clean up the TF session.
    # Second Session to test loading trained model without tensors
    x_test <- data$validation$images
    x_test <- array_reshape(x_test, dim = c(nrow(x_test), 28, 28, 1))
    y_test <- data$validation$labels
    x_test_inp <- layer_input(shape = dim(x_test)[-1])
    test_out <- cnn_layers(x_test_inp)
    test_model <- keras_model(inputs = x_test_inp, outputs = test_out)
    test_model %>% load_model_weights_hdf5('saved_wt.h5')
    test_model %>% compile(
      optimizer = 'rmsprop', 
      loss = 'categorical_crossentropy', 
      metrics = c('accuracy')
    result <- test_model %>% evaluate(x_test, to_categorical(y_test, classes))
    cat(sprintf('\nTest accuracy: %f', result$acc))